Fort Anne (4)
Fort Anne (4) (1629-1854) - A Scots Fort established in 1632 in Port Royal now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada. First named Charles Fort and finally named Fort Anne. Abandoned in 1854. Also known as Port Royal Fort.
William Alexander established a “New Scotland” settlement and Charles Fort at what was then Port-Royal, Nova Scotia in 1629. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1632 returned New France (Quebec, Acadia and Cape Breton Island) to French control after the Scots had seized it in 1629. The result at Port-Royal was the abandonment of Charles Fort in 1633.
Acadian Civil War (1635–1654)
In 1636, Charles de Menou D’Aulnay brought French Acadian settlers to the area the Scots had abandoned, making the fort his Port-Royal headquarters. His rival Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour had established Fort La Tour across the Bay of Fundy in 1631 and the two became locked in a conflict known as the Acadian Civil War. The war ended in 1650 with the drowning death of d’Aulnay and the marriage of La tour to d’Aulnay's widow.
King William's War (1689-1697)
Captured by English troops under Major Robert Sedgewick in July 1654. The fort was no longer in use by 1686, and the English easily captured the town again in May 1690. It was returned by treaty in 1697 and the French governed Acadia from successive forts at Port-Royal until 1710.
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)
During Queen Anne's War, the French constructed a new Port-Royal Fort built over the traces of the old forts. Construction of the new fort was supervised by Pierre-Paul de Labat, a French officer and engineer, who also designed the fort. Labat had trained under the great military engineer of European fortifications, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban. Labat created a Vauban style star-shaped fort with four bastions connected by curtain walls, with a ravelin and seaward battery.
The new fort withstood British attacks in 1704 and 1707. The south magazine was built in 1708, and is now the oldest remaining detached magazine from the British colonial period.
The British captured the fort a final time in October 1710, renamed it Fort Anne, and renamed the adjoining settlement to Annapolis Royal. From 1713 to 1749, the British governed Nova Scotia from the fort. The Deportation of French Acadians from Annapolis Royal, and the settlement of New England Planters and Loyalists in their place was organized from the site.
Annapolis Royal served as the capital of the province until 1749 when Halifax was established. The last garrison left the fort in 1854.
Canada's oldest National Historic Site. Remaining structures and features include: