Fort Ann (1)

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Fort Ann (1) (1837-1838) - A U.S. Army post established in November 1837 during the Second Seminole War by 1st Lieutenant James R. Irwin, 1st U.S. Artillery and one company of troops. Named by Lieutenant Irwin after "the prettiest girl in Pennsylvania". Abandoned in April 1838.

New Haulover Canal.
New Haulover Canal Bridge Marker, Mentions Fort Ann.
New Haulover Canal Bridge.


Built to guard the "Haulover" portage between the Indian River and Mosquito Lagoon in the present-day Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The Haulover was a strategic portage place used by Indians and Traders to transition from the Indian River to ocean access through the Mosquito Lagoon. The post was to serve as a garrison for United States troops as well as a depot for supplies and equipment in support of General Thomas Sidney Jesup's military offensive against the Seminoles in 1837-1838. The fort was started in December 1837 and used through April 1838 by U.S. soldiers and the Navy to stage supplies and troops. The fort played a significant role in the operations against the Seminoles supplying troops in the field and other forts. In April 1838 it was ordered abandoned by General order.

Annotated extract from the 1893 map of Brevard County Showing Fort Ann and the Old Haulover Canal.

In 1880, J. Francis LeBaron surveyed the area surrounding Fort Ann and drew a map showing an outline of the fort with three sides and bastions on each of two corners (see Paterno below). The fourth side was the Indian River. This unusual configuration would have left the waterside open to attack and it may be those other military occupants during the U.S. Civil War or civilian occupants after that salvaged the materials from the waterside for other construction.

At some point before 1880 the carryover had become the (old) carryover canal shown in LeBaron's drawing. The old fort and the old Carryover Canal are still shown in an 1893 map of the county also done by J. Francis LeBaron.

Current Status

Marker only, no remains. Site located on the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Brevard County, Florida.

Location: Map point approximate. On the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Brevard County, Florida.

Maps & Images

Lat: 28.72575 Long: -80.74758


  • Roberts, Robert B., Encyclopedia of Historic Forts: The Military, Pioneer, and Trading Posts of the United States, Macmillan, New York, 1988, 10th printing, ISBN 0-02-926880-X, page 144-145.
  • Paterno, David, Fort Ann and the Second Seminole War, The Indian River Journal, Brevard County Historical Commission, Vol II, No. 1, Summer 2003, pages 11-15.


Visited: Area Visit 7 Sep 2021, 19 Feb 2012, 7 Feb 2010

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