Fort Frederick (1)
Fort Frederick (1) (1756-1764, 1780-1783, 1861-1865) - First established as a French & Indian War fort in 1756. Named by Governor Horato Sharpe after Frederick Calvert who was Lord Baltimore. Finally abandoned after the U.S. Civil War in 1865.
French & Indian War (1754-1763)
Built as a massive stone fort by the Maryland Colony to protect English colonists and interests in northern Maryland from French forces and their Indian allies. The fort was built as a square with large pointed bastions at each corner and stone walls 3-4 feet thick and 17 feet high. The walls enclosed a large area with two large enlisted barracks and separate officer's quarters. Each of the bastions was armed with four 6 pounder cannons.
The French & Indian War ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763 but the capture of the French Fort Duquesne (1) in 1758 signaled the end of hostilities in the Maryland area. During the period of hostilities, the fort was garrisoned by the Maryland Forces augments by militia and elements of the 60th Regiment of Foot, known as the "Royal Americans." In May 1763 an uprising of Indian tribes caused some 700 settlers and militia to flee to Fort Frederick for protection. This uprising lasted until 1765 and was known as Pontiac's War after Chief Pontiac who led one of the largest tribes involved.
Revolutionary War (1775-1783)
In 1777 the Continental Congress set up Fort Frederick as a prisoner of war camp for captured British and Hessian soldiers. After the end of the war, the fort was sold and converted to farmland.
U.S. Civil War (1861-1865)
During the U.S. Civil War the fort was garrisoned by troops from the 1st Maryland Infantry to protect portions of the B & O Railroad and the C & O Canal, both of which ran right by the fort. The only attack on the fort occurred on 25 Dec 1861 when Confederate raiders briefly skirmished with the garrison.
The State of Maryland purchased the fort property in 1922 and began the development of the state park. In the 1930s the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) rebuilt the stone fort walls and excavated the original building foundations. In 1975 the two large enlisted barracks were rebuilt and fitted with displays and artifacts. The restored stone fort with two restored barracks buildings with period displays is now a part of the Fort Frederick State Park. A visitors center, store, and museum are located outside the walls.
Visited: 5 Aug 2010
Fort Frederick (1) Picture Gallery