Fort Mississauga (1814-1870) - A British colonial fort established in 1814 during the War of 1812 in present day Niagara-on-the-Lake, Niagara RM, Ontario, Canada. Abandoned by British troops when they departed Canada in 1870.
Built in 1814 to replace nearby Fort George (7) which had been destroyed by bombardment from the American Fort Niagara across the Niagara River. Fort George (7) was captured by American forces after the bombardment in May 1813 and held by them until December 1813 when the area was recaptured by British forces. The withdrawing American forces burned the fort and the town as they departed. The British held the area for the rest of the war rebuilding Fort George (7) and adding Fort Mississauga and Butler's Barracks to the defenses.
Fort Mississauga was an earthworks fortification with a large brick three story central blockhouse/tower dominating the interior. The roof over the top floor on the blockhouse was removed at times and made into an open cannon platform as shown in the diagram of the tower. Two powder magazines were located in the earthworks on either side of the land side entrance to the fort. A narrow sallyport entrance provides water side access. The configuration of the earthworks changed from a relatively simple irregular star shaped fort in 1814 to a more complex shape with more waterside defenses and a land side raviline protecting the land side entrance by 1858.
After the war of 1812 the fort was part of a British complex guarding the north entrance to the Niagara river that included Fort George (7) and Butler's Barracks. The fort was garrisoned in 1837 during the Canadian Rebellion with some 50 troops but was disarmed in 1856 and finally abandoned in 1870 as British troops left Canada.
Part of the Fort Mississauga National Historic Site, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Niagara RM, Ontario, Canada. Fort Mississauga is now accessed through the Niagara-on-the-Lake Golf Course. A trail to the fort starts at the corner of Simcoe and Front streets and crosses part of the golf course. Visitors should yield to the golfers. The inside of the fort is dominated by the brick blockhouse but the blockhouse is not normally open to the public. Both magazines are open but are damaged and graffiti covered. The sallyport/tunnel on the water side is open and leads to a shore trail.
Visited: 7 Aug 2013