Houston ARTCC

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Houston ARTCC (1965-Active) - One of 22 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC)s in the United States. Established in 1965 near Houston, Harris County, Texas. Assigned a FAA ID of ZHU. Active FAA Air Traffic Control Center. Also known as Houston Center.

Houston ARTCC.

History

The Houston ARTCC (ZHU) was constructed in June 1965 on an 18-acre site adjacent to the George Bush Houston Intercontinental Airport. Installation of automation processing equipment began in 1969 and evolved into a very complex system. The latest updates included adding a new control room and controller support wing added in 1999. In June 2000, the center transitioned to DSR (Display System Replacement) and VSCS (Voice Switching and Control System).

The Houston ARTCC is currently located at 16600 John F. Kennedy Blvd., Houston, Texas. The Houston Center covers a part of the FAA's Central service area.

The Houston Center area of responsibility consists of nearly 300, 000 square nautical miles of airspace encompassing parts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and a large portion of the Gulf of Mexico. Over 150 VHF and UHF radio frequencies located at over 40 remote transmitter/receiver sites provide continuous radio coverage throughout the Houston Center area. The Houston Center has inputs from 9 long-range radar sites providing almost complete radar coverage. Some 400 square nautical miles in the Gulf of Mexico remains without radar coverage.

Navigation along more than 46,700 nautical miles of airways and routes is provided by 56 VOR/VORTAC’s (radio navigational aids). Within the Houston Center area, there are 22 FAA control towers, 16 approach control facilities, 87 major airports, and 15 military fields. Houston Center has six Operations Managers (OM’s) who provide oversight and leadership for 6 specialty areas: Austin, Lufkin, Rock Springs, Corpus Christi, New Orleans, and Lake Charles

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) system of 24 FAA Area Control Centers, 20 in the lower 48 United States, one in Alaska, one in Hawaii, one in Puerto Rica and one in Guam. The system operates with radar data provided by FAA radar sites, DoD radar sites, and other federal agency radar sites. These centers provide en route and oceanic services to private, commercial, and military aircraft overflying their respective control areas. As aircraft enter or exit from one control area to the next, responsibility for the aircraft is transferred to the gaining ARTCC. Voice communication between aircraft and the ARTCCs is supported by a network of ground-air radio sites often co-located with the radar sites.

The gathering of radar, beacon and other sensor data are now largely automated and continuous, but the actions necessary to control the airspace are conversational and require some 14,000 FAA air traffic controllers talking directly to pilots in the air and on the ground at terminals. This number does not include military air traffic controllers.

Houston ARTCC (ZHU)
Total Operations (aircraft handled) 2,250837 FY2016
Total Operations (aircraft handled) 2,250,740 FY2017
Operations Rank 9/24 FY2017
En-Route Air Traffic Controllers 308 a/o 17 Sep 2016
Airspace Area (sq miles) 220,000


Houston ARTCC Long-Range Radar Sites (edit list)
FAA JSS NORAD Site St_ Equip_ Status Origin GPS ARTCC Notes
ZQRB J-12 Z-336 Citronelle AL CARSR
ATCBI-6
Active Replaced Dauphin Island different location 31.03987,
-88.23775
ZHU *√
ZAEX Alexandria LA CARSR
ATCBI-6
Active England AFB 31.31435,
-92.53062
ZHU
ZLCH J-14A Lake Charles LA ARSR-4
ATCBI-6M
Active 30.36056,
-93.51139
ZHU
ZNEW J-13 Z-246 Slidell
(New Orleans)
LA ARSR-4
ATCBI-6M
Active 30.34806,
-89.77944
ZHU
ZQYS Rogers TX CARSR
ATCBI-6
Active 30.94389,
-97.26861
ZHU *√
HOUA J-15 Z-240 Houston
Ellington
TX CARSR
ATCBI-6
Active Ellington AFB 29.61556,
-95.17306
ZHU
ZQNA J-15A1 Morales TX ARSR-4
ATCBI-6M
Active 29.34139,
-96.87167
ZHU
ZQZA J-16 Z-242 Oilton TX ARSR-4
ATCBI-6M
Active 27.49889,
-98.96944
ZHU
ZRSG J-25A Rocksprings TX ARSR-4
ATCBI-6M
Active 30.04667,
-100.26778
ZHU
ZSOA J-25 Z-339 Sonora TX ARSR-3
Unk
Closed-1997 30.47111,
-100.55806
ZHU Gone

Note: This list includes only long-range FAA Radar Sites listed with this ARTCC as the Overlying Enroute Center. Adjacent ARTCC sector sites are not shown and short-range terminal radar sites are not shown.

Houston Manual NORAD Control Center

On 5 Oct 1969, an armed MIG-17 flew undetected from Cuba to Homestead Air Force Base, Florida. On 26 Oct 1971, a Cuban Airliner with 19 Cuban delegates to an International Sugar Conference arrived undetected over New Orleans Moisant Airport and requested landing instructions. That flight arrived undetected by the existing string of FAA radar sites across the Gulf Coast and caused great concern. The Gunter SAGE Direction Center DC-09 had been closed along with many of the Air Force radar sites along the Gulf Coast by the end of 1969 and no mechanism existed to identify and intercept unidentified planes approaching from the south. None of the FAA radar sites had a height-finding capability and none had the capability to run intercepts. Both incidents sparked Congressional investigations and the Secretay of Defense directed the Air Force to establish an improved air defense system for the Southern United States.

To create the necessary capabilities the Southern Air Defense Sector (SADS) was created. The 630th Radar Squadron was activated on 1 Aug 1972 and assigned to the FAA's Houston ARTCC when the Houston Manual NORAD Control Center was completed in October 1972. The Manual direction Center operated until 1977 when the 630th was disbanded. Ten radar sites were designated to provide radar track data to the control center and to SAGE System direction centers. Two Air Force Stations that had been deactivated were reactivated and eight FAA radar stations were upgraded to include USAF FPS-6 type Height-Finder radars manned by Air Force Personnel. Congressional testimony on 23 May 1973 outlined the Air Force plan and provided details that indicated that common digitizers (FYQ-47s) were being used to transmit target data and to innterface the Height-Finder radars. A random access planned position indicator (RAPPI) was also provided at Houston. In the same Congressional testimony, it was indicated that the BUIC III at Tyndall AFB would remain operational while the other 11 BUIC IIIs would be placed in standby status "... due to limitations within the SAGE system which restricts the geographical area which can be displayed."

To intercept any unknown aircraft coming from the south the Air Force established a supersonic interceptor and alert capability of F-102's at Ellington AFB, Tucson International Airport and New Orleans in addition to the F-106's at Tyndall AFB. Costs were estimated to be 4.8 million in FY-73 and 10 million in FY-1974. The congressional testimony also established that USAF planned to have 303 military and 5 civilians authorized for the Southern Air Defense program at end of FY-1973.

As computer and communications technology evolved the southern defense merged into the national airspace plan and the deployment of 44 ARSR-4 3D radars around the perimeter of the US in the late 1990s. The fallibility of a perimeter defense plan was proven in the events of 911 and a national upgrade of the interior radar network known as the Common Air Route Surveillance Radar (CARSR) program was completed in 2015.


Southern Air Defense Sector (SADS) Radar Sites (edit list)
FAA JSS NORAD Site St_ Equip_ Status Origin GPS ARTCC Notes
--- J-14 Z-248 Lake Charles LA FPS-93
Closed
1990s
Lake Charles AFS 30.18472,
-93.17500
630 OL-AF
634
678 OL-AD
23 OL-BD
--- Z-249 Dauphin Island AL FPS-93
Closed
1980
Dauphin Island AFS 30.25028,
-88.07833
ZHU 635
630 OL-AG
678
QZA J-16 Z-242 Oilton TX ARSR-4
Active 27.49889,
-98.96944
ZHU 630 OL-AB
678 OL-AA
SVC J-28 Z-245 Silver City NM CARSR
Active 32.98917,
-108.96056
ZAB 4929
26 OL-AG
--- J-27 Z-244 El Paso TX ARSR-1
Closed
1997
31.68083,
-106.19722
4629
26 OL-AH
QXS J-26 Z-243 Odessa TX CARSR
Active 32.55417,
-102.42778
ZFW 630 OL-AA
26 OL-AA
SAT Z-241 Lackland TX FPS-66A
Closed
2011
Lackland AFB 29.38803,
-98.63332
ZHU 630 OL-AD
HOUA J-15 Z-240 Houston
Ellington
TX CARSR
Active Ellington AFB 29.61556,
-95.17306
ZHU 630 OL-AC
678 OL-AB
NEW J-13 Z-246 Slidell LA ARSR-4
Active 30.34806,
-89.77944
ZHU 630 OL-AE
678 OL-AC
PHX J-29 Z-247 Phoenix
Humboldt Mtn
AZ CARSR
Active 33.98139,
-111.79806
ZAB 4929
26 OL-AF

Current Status

Active FAA facility in Houston, Harris County, Texas.


Location: 16600 John F. Kennedy Blvd., Houston, Texas 77032

Maps & Images

Lat: 29.96144 Long: -95.33194


GPS Locations:

See Also:

Sources:

  • Administrator's Fact Book, Federal Aviation Administration, May 2019, archived 4 Jun 2019, Pdf
  • 2017-2026 Air Traffic Controller Workforce Plan, Federal Aviation Administration, 2017, archived 5 Jun 2019, Pdf
  • Air Traffic by the Numbers, Federal Aviation Administration, 2018, archived 5 Jun 2019, Pdf
  • Computer system to Improve air safety unveiled in LA, The Napa Valley Register (Napa, California), 11 Mar 1988, page 20, archived 7 Jul 2019.
  • Department of Defense Appropriations for 1974: Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Ninety-third Congress, First Session, United States. Congress, pt. 5, U.S. Government Printing Office, Google Books 1973
    • Pages 770-773 Southern Air Defense
    • Pages 774- Retention of one active BUIC and 11 semi-active

Links:

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