Battery Russell (1904-1944) - Battery Russell was built at Fort Stevens between Mar 1903 and Aug 1904 and was transferred for service 12 Aug 1904 at a cost of $125,000. Battery Russell was named for Bvt. Major General David A. Russell who was killed in action 19 Sep 1864 at Opequan, Virginia, during the U.S. Civil War (earlier in his career he served as commander of Fort Yamhill). Deactivated 29 Dec 1944 upon completion of Battery 245.
Endicott Period (1890-1910)
Part of the Harbor Defense of the Columbia.
A concrete Endicott Period battery facing the Pacific Ocean with two, 10" M1900 rifles on M1901 disappearing carriages was completed in 1904. The gun carriages were installed and in place in Dec 1905 but the two 10" rifles did not reach Fort Stevens until 20 Sep 1907. The 30-ton gun barrels were transported to the Battery by rail cars and mounted by artillery troops in Nov 1907. Originally, the planners wanted the battery to have 12" rifles because they thought that with the battery facing the Pacific Ocean, it would have been wiser for the battery to have greater range. But the battery was already under construction, and it was too late to make the change.
Battery Russell supplemented the fire of Battery Mishler and when that Battery was inactivated in 1918, Battery Russell was used as a practice battery for regular and National Guard artillery units.
World War II (1941-1945)
Battery Russell was slated to be replaced by eight 12" mortars mounted on railway carriages as World War II approached. At the onset of World War II the mortars were shipped elsewhere and Battery Russell was activated from 31 Jul 1941 to 29 Dec 1944. The decision to deactivate Battery Russell was made after the completion of Battery 245 just west of the deactivated Battery Mishler.
Fort Stevens (1) and Battery Russell had the distinction of being the only stateside installation attacked by enemy forces since the war of 1812 when a Japanese submarine I-25 fired 17 shells close to Battery Russell. The Battery did not return the fire because the submarine was out of range of its older guns. The submarine left without inflicting any damage.
In good condition and open to the public. No guns or carriages in place.
Visited: 18 May 2008