Endicott Period

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Endicott Period (1890-1910)

In 1885 US President Grover Cleveland appointed a joint army, navy and civilian board, headed by Secretary of War William C. Endicott, known as the Board of Fortifications. The findings of the board illustrated a grim picture of existing defenses in its 1886 report and recommended a massive $127 million construction program of breechloading cannons, mortars, floating batteries, and submarine mines for some 29 locations on the US coastline.

Prior efforts at harbor defense construction had ceased in 1876. Since that time the design and construction of heavy ordnance advanced rapidly, including the development of superior breechloading and longer-ranged cannon, making the US harbor defenses obsolete. In 1883, the navy had begun a new construction program with an emphasis on offensive rather than defensive warships. These factors combined to create a need for improved coastal defense systems.

The Endicott Board's recommendations would lead to a large scale modernization program of harbor and coastal defenses in the United States, especially the construction of modern reinforced concrete fortifications and the installation of large caliber breechloading artillery and mortar batteries. Typically, Endicott period projects were not fortresses, but a system of well-dispersed emplacements with few but large guns in each location. The structures were usually open-topped concrete walls protected by sloped earthworks. Many of these featured disappearing guns, which sat protected behind the walls, but could be raised to fire. Mine fields were a critical component of the defense, and smaller guns were also employed to protect the mine fields from mine sweeping vessels.

See Also:


Endicott Period Forts (1890-1910) (edit list)
East Coast Florida & Gulf Coast West Coast

1. Fort Popham, Prospect, ME
2. Fort Baldwin (1), Sabino Head, ME
3. Fort Preble, Portland, ME
4. Fort Lyon, Cow Island, ME
5. Fort McKinley, Great Diamond Island, ME
6. Fort Levett, Cushing Island, ME
7. Fort Williams, Portland Head, ME
8. Fort Foster, Gerrish Island,NH
9. Fort Constitution, Newcastle Island, NH
10. Fort Stark, Jerry's Point, NH
11. Fort Banks,Winthrop, MA
12. Fort Heath, Grover's Cliff, MA
13. Fort Warren, Georges Island, MA
14. Fort Standish, Lovell's Island, MA
15. Fort Strong, Long Island, MA
16. Fort Andrews, Peddocks Island, MA
17. Fort Revere, Hull, MA
18. Fort Rodman, Clarke Point, MA
19. Fort Adams, Newport, RI
20. Fort Wetherill, Conanicut Island, RI
21. Fort Getty, Conanicut Island, RI
22. Fort Greble, Dutch Island, RI
23. Fort Kearny, Saunderstown, RI
24. Fort Mansfield (1), Napatree Point, RI
25. Fort H.G. Wright, Fisher's Island, NY
26. Fort Michie, Great Gull Island, NY
27. Fort Terry, Plum Island, NY
28. Fort Tyler, Gardiners Point Island, NY
29. Fort Slocum, Davids Island, NY
30. Fort Schuyler, Throgs Neck, NY
31. Fort Totten, Willert's Point, NY
32. Fort Tilden, Rockaway, NY
33. Fort Hamilton, East Narrows, NY
34. Fort Wadsworth, West Narrows, NY
35. Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook, NJ
36. Fort Mott, Finns Point, NJ
37. Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, DE
38. Fort DuPont, Delaware City, DE
39. Fort Howard, North Point, MD
40. Fort Carroll, Soller's Point, MD
41. Fort Armistead (1), Hawkins Point, MD
42. Fort Smallwood, Rock Point, MD
43. Fort Washington, Potomac E. Bank, MD
44. Fort Hunt, Potomac W. Bank, VA
45. Fort Monroe, Old Point Comfort, VA
46. Fort Wool, Rip Raps, VA
47. Fort Caswell, Oak Island, NC
48. Fort Moultrie, Sullivan's Island, SC
49. Fort Sumter, Artificial Island, SC
50. Fort Fremont, St Helena Island, SC
51. Fort Welles, Hilton Head Island, SC
52. Fort Screven, Tybee Island, GA
53. Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, GA

54. Fort Taylor, Key West, FL
55. Fort Dade, Egmont Key, FL
56. Fort De Soto, Muller Key, FL
57. Fort Pickens, Santa Rosa Island, FL
58. Fort McRee, Perdido Key, FL
59. Fort Morgan, Mobile Point, AL
60. Fort Gaines, Dauphin Island, AL
61. Fort St. Philip, Mississippi N. Bank, LA
62. Fort Jackson, Mississippi S. Bank, LA
63. Fort Travis, Bolivar Point, TX
64. Fort San Jacinto, Fort Point, TX
65. Fort Crockett, Galveston, TX

66. Fort Pio Pico, North Island, CA
67. Fort Rosecrans, Point Loma, CA
68. Fort Miley, Lands End, CA
69. Fort Winfield Scott, Presidio, CA
70. Fort Mason, Black Point, CA
71. Fort McDowell, Angel Island, CA
72. Fort Baker, Lime Point, CA
73. Fort Barry, Point Bonita, CA
74. Fort Stevens, Point Adams, OR
75. Fort Columbia, Chinook Point, WA
76. Fort Canby, Cape Disappointment, WA
77. Fort Ward, Bean Point, WA
78. Fort Whitman, Goat Island, WA
79. Fort Flagler, Marrowstone Island, WA
80. Fort Casey, Admiralty Head, WA
81. Fort Worden, Point Wilson, WA

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